Conference Overview The global business environment is facing an unprecedented level of uncertainty and change. The recent period of de-globalization, the Covid-19 pandemic, geopolitical events, and the global supply chain crisis have spurred many firms operating across borders to increasingly focus on (and reconsider) the nature of cross-border knowledge-sourcing strategies. This includes changes in the geography of R&D and innovation, as well as the international fragmentation of production activities (Papanastassiou, Pearce, and Zanfei, 2020). The orchestration of GVCs by MNEs had already generated populist pressures in local economies, especially in advanced countries (Lorenzen, Mudambi, and Schotter, 2020) and these disruptions have exacerbated them. During this period, revolutionary innovations and technological advancements have also increased the usage of digital technologies, artificial intelligence, blockchain, and big data, spurring entrepreneurial advancements made by firms operating globally (Autio, Mudambi, and Yoo, 2021). At the same time, social sustainability, such as the notion of achieving social equity, environmental protection, and economic viability, has come to the forefront of international business practices. Hence, international business research has begun to conceptualize how multinational enterprises can be more innovative in contributing to social sustainability by re-assessing value chain activities to mitigate negative externalities (such as overuse of natural resources) and investing in host communities to help solve problems relating to underdevelopment (Montiel, Cuervo-Cazurra, Park, Antolin-Lopez, & Husted, 2021). Yet, while this area of research is nascent, it is also unclear as to its implications for both firms and their stakeholders. For example, Bruton, Sutter, and Lenz (2021) recently found that results have been mixed concerning whether entrepreneurial activities by firms operating in emerging economies help to reduce inequality.